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热度 5已有 960 次阅读2018-3-27 04:54 | 意大利、塔兰托




    塔兰托城堡也称为圣安杰洛城堡,位于靠近古老的自然梯度的岩石岸边,这座古老的城市基本上是在阿拉贡堡垒旧址上重建,但具有非常不同的特点。因为它是一座典型的中世纪城堡 ,它拜占庭式的防御工事上建造了许多高大而狭窄的塔楼,这些塔楼的基础可以追溯到希腊时期(公元前三世纪)。十五世纪的火炮改进使中世纪的城堡被废弃了,因为它们的薄壁不能再站起来反对攻击者的炮火,也不允许防御者使用它。 1480年土耳其人征服奥特朗托,这个事件体现出这种强化措施是不够的。那不勒斯国王阿拉贡费迪南德决定加强王国的海防。在这种情况下,1487年至1492年间,塔兰托城堡被重建,可能是伟大的塞恩建筑师弗朗切斯科迪乔治的独具匠心的设计。这座新城堡的形状隐约让人想起蝎子,在建筑的入口处有五座圆形塔楼,这些塔比以前更低,更厚。面向运河的三座塔被命名为S. CristoforoSan LorenzoSant'Angelo,而面向旧城的两座塔则被称为AnnunziataBandiera。塔楼和墙壁高度相同,21米,厚度几乎相同,约8;除了宽10米的San Cristoforo外,所有塔楼的直径都是18米。

根据Francesco di Giorgio的粗略设计,面对外部海港,一个三角形舷墙(XVI堡垒的一个真实原型,错误地称为ravelin)是为了增强南部的幕墙并提高通道的侧面防御能力扩大的护城河连接外部与内港。十五世纪的防御工事具有很大的审美吸引力,但由于大炮的迅速发展,它具有相当短暂的军事价值。1502年继阿拉贡之后,西班牙人拓宽了顶部平台,以促进大炮的移动和使用。它们还将墙中的许多走廊相连以及和楼的上层居民一起加固土地,并在塔顶建造炮兵阵地。尽管采取了西班牙的干预措施,堡垒还是逐渐失去军事意义,并在多次战斗中发挥主导作用。其中,在1594年推翻土耳其军队中,被用作监狱和军营。这种不同的功能导致内部场地分散,通道和走廊关闭。此外,住宅需求的增加以及成本较低的石膏和水泥导致需要使用材料覆盖墙壁和地板,以改善卫生条件。但是,除了S. Angelo的塔楼外,其余城堡基本保持完好。城堡1883年被拆除,为摆动桥让路。自2003年以来,意大利海军是1883年的城堡管理人,开始系统性地修复城堡内部,意图带回阿拉贡的形态并确定以前的希腊语,拜占庭,诺曼,斯瓦比亚安文结构。由当地建筑遗产监督指导的意大利海军人员进行的内部修复工作主要包括清除石膏和水泥,以揭开墙壁和地板的原始表面,以及重新开放雕像,房间和通道,以重新建立城堡的内部通透性和各种防御元素的功能。在这些活动期间,考古遗产监督与巴里大学一起挖掘和清除了大量的土壤,并发现了来自不同时代的无数文物,包含近三千年的历史。


The Castle of Taranto, called Castle S. Angelo, is located close to an ancient natural gradient of the rocky bank upon, which rises the old part of the city and is basically an Aragonese reconstruction of a previous fortress built in the same area, but having very different characteristics since it was a typical medieval castle with numerous tall and narrow towers built over previous Byzantine fortifications that had foundations dating back to the Greek period (IV-III century b c.). The improvement of artillery in the xv century made medieval castles obsolete, as their thin walls could no longer stand up against the artillery of the attackers nor allow its use by the defenders. The conquest of Otranto by the Turks in 1480 made it all too clear that this type of fortification was now inadequate. The King of Naples, Ferdinand of Aragon, thus decided to strengthen the kingdom's coastal defence. Within this context, between 1487 and 1492, the Castle of Taranto was reconstructed following perhaps the specific design of the great Senese architect Francesco di Giorgio. The new castle had a shape vaguely reminiscent that of a scorpion, with five round towers located at the comers of the construction. These towers, lower and thicker than the previous ones, were named S. Cristoforo, San Lorenzo and Sant' Angelo for the three facing the current canal, while the two facing the old city were called Annunziata and Bandiera. Towers and walls were of the same height, 21 meters, and almost the same thickness, about 8 meters; all the towers had a diameter of 18 meters except for San Cristoforo which was 10 meters wider. Facing the outside harbour, according to the probable design of Francesco di Giorgio, a triangular bulwark, (a true prototype of the XVI bastion, incorrectly called ravelin), was in to reinforce the southem curtain wall and improve flank defense capability of the access to the moat that was enlarged to connect the outside with the inside harbour. The xv century fortifications had great aesthetic appeal but a rather ephemeral military value due to the rapid progress of artillery.The Spaniards who succeeded the Aragonese in 1502, widened the top platforms to facilitate the movement and use of artillery.They also with soil many of the corridors inside the walls and the upper casemates of the towers to strengthen them and to build artillery emplacements on the towers top.in spite of the Spanish interventions, the fortress progressively lost military significance and, after playing the leading role in numerous battles, including the repulse of a Turkish assault in 1594, it ended up being used as a prison and as barracks.This different function led to a fragmentation of the internal premises, with the closing of passages and corridors.Furthermore, the increased residential requirements, together with the lower cost plaster and cement, led use materials cover walls and floors in order to improve hygienic conditions.The castle, however, remained substantially intact except for the tower of S. Angelo, demolished in 1883 to make way for the swing bridge.Since 2003, the Italian Navy, custodian of the castle from 1883, has begun the systematic restoration of the interior of the fortress with the intent of bringing back the Aragonese configuration and identifying the previous Greek, Byzantine, Norman, swabian-Angevin structures.The intermal restoration, carried out by Italian Navy personnel supervised by the local Superintendence of Architectural Heritage, consists mostly in the removal of plaster and cement to bring to light the original surface of walls and floors and in the re-opening of comdors, rooms andpassages, in order to re-establish the intermal permeability of the castle and the functionality of the various defensive elements.During these activities huge quantities of soil have been excavated and removed jointly with the University of Bari, under the supervision of the Superintendence of Archaeological Heritage, leading to the discovery of numerous relics from different eras encompassing almost three thousand years of history.






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